Citation index

« Back to Glossary Index

History and Major Citation Indexing Services
– The earliest known citation index dates back to the 12th century.
– Shepards Citations, published in 1873, was a well-known citation index for legal cases.
– Citation indexes were initially used for tracking science and engineering literature in the 20th century.
– Major citation indexing services include Web of Science by Clarivate Analytics, Scopus by Elsevier, CiteSeer, and Google Scholar.
– Subject-specific citation indexing services include INSPIRE-HEP, PubMed, and Astrophysics Data System.

Representativeness and Limitations of Proprietary Databases
– Clarivate Analytics Web of Science and Elsevier’s Scopus databases are considered authoritative sources of bibliometric data.
– Research output from countries in South America, Asia, and Africa may be underrepresented in these databases.
– Both Web of Science and Scopus are highly selective and predominantly controlled by panels in North America and Western Europe.
– Coverage of journals outside North America and Europe is limited in both databases.
– Scopus covers a fraction of journal publishing outside North America and Europe.

Limitations and Impact of Scopus and Web of Science
– The editorial boards of journals in Scopus and Web of Science are predominantly composed of researchers from Western Europe and North America.
– Subject-specific indexes may reveal geographical and topic bias in citation coverage.
– The under-representation of applied research in Africa, Asia, and South America may impact research strategies and policy development in these regions.
– Citation indexing services like Web of Science and Scopus are widely used for researcher evaluation, institutional impact assessment, and international rankings.
– The research output of countries in South America, Asia, and Africa may be perceived as low based on data from Scopus.

Challenges of English Language Dominance and Epistemic Barriers
– Overpromotion of global databases diminishes the role of local and regional journals.
English language dominance poses challenges for non-native speakers.
– Non-native speakers spend time and resources on translation and correction.
– Research from South East Asia, Africa, and Latin America is underrepresented in global databases.
– Conscious and unconscious bias exists in North American and European journals.

Efforts to Broaden Database Scope and Discipline- and Region-Specific Repositories
– Clarivate Analytics integrated the SciELO citation index into Web of Science.
– The creation of the Emerging Sources Index (ESI) increased access to international titles.
– Traditional metrics do not capture the dynamics of the global science landscape.
– Discipline- and region-specific preprint repositories like AfricArXiv and InarXiv bridge the gap.
– Open access advocates recommend remaining critical of global research databases built in Europe or North America.

Citation index (Wikipedia)

A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. A form of citation index is first found in 12th-century Hebrew religious literature. Legal citation indexes are found in the 18th century and were made popular by citators such as Shepard's Citations (1873). In 1961, Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). American Chemical Society converted its printed Chemical Abstract Service (established in 1907) into internet-accessible SciFinder in 2008. The first automated citation indexing was done by CiteSeer in 1997 and was patented. Other sources for such data include Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Elsevier's Scopus, and the National Institutes of Health's iCite.

« Back to Glossary Index

Submit your RFP

We can't wait to read about your project. Use the form below to submit your RFP!

Gabrielle Buff
Gabrielle Buff

Just left us a 5 star review

Great customer service and was able to walk us through the various options available to us in a way that made sense. Would definitely recommend!

Stoute Web Solutions has been a valuable resource for our business. Their attention to detail, expertise, and willingness to help at a moment's notice make them an essential support system for us.

Paul and the team are very professional, courteous, and efficient. They always respond immediately even to my minute concerns. Also, their SEO consultation is superb. These are good people!

Paul Stoute & his team are top notch! You will not find a more honest, hard working group whose focus is the success of your business. If you’re ready to work with the best to create the best for your business, go Stoute Web Solutions; you’ll definitely be glad you did!

Wonderful people that understand our needs and make it happen!

Paul is the absolute best! Always there with solutions in high pressure situations. A steady hand; always there when needed; I would recommend Paul to anyone!

Vince Fogliani

The team over at Stoute web solutions set my business up with a fantastic new website, could not be happier

Steve Sacre

If You are looking for Website design & creativity look no further. Paul & his team are the epitome of excellence.Don't take my word just refer to my website ""that Stoute Web Solutions created.This should convince anyone that You have finally found Your perfect fit

Jamie Hill

Paul and the team at Stoute Web are amazing. They are super fast to answer questions. Super easy to work with, and knows their stuff. 10,000 stars.

Paul and the team from Stoute Web solutions are awesome to work with. They're super intuitive on what best suits your needs and the end product is even better. We will be using them exclusively for our web design and hosting.

Dean Eardley

Beautifully functional websites from professional, knowledgeable team.

Along with hosting most of my url's Paul's business has helped me with website development, graphic design and even a really cool back end database app! I highly recommend him as your 360 solution to making your business more visible in today's social media driven marketplace.

I hate dealing with domain/site hosts. After terrible service for over a decade from Dreamhost, I was desperate to find a new one. I was lucky enough to win...

Paul Stoute has been extremely helpful in helping me choose the best package to suite my needs. Any time I had a technical issue he was there to help me through it. Superb customer service at a great value. I would recommend his services to anyone that wants a hassle free and quality experience for their website needs.

Paul is the BEST! I am a current customer and happy to say he has never let me down. Always responds quickly and if he cant fix the issue right away, if available, he provides you a temporary work around while researching the correct fix! Thanks for being an honest and great company!!

Paul Stoute is absolutely wonderful. Paul always responds to my calls and emails right away. He is truly the backbone of my business. From my fantastic website to popping right up on Google when people search for me and designing my business cards, Paul has been there every step of the way. I would recommend this company to anyone.

I can't say enough great things about Green Tie Hosting. Paul was wonderful in helping me get my website up and running quickly. I have stayed with Green...