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Web accessibility

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Assistive Technologies and Guidelines for Web Accessibility
– Assistive technologies used for web browsing: screen reader software, braille terminals, screen magnification software, speech recognition software, keyboard overlays
– Guidelines on accessible web design: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), WCAG 1.0 and WCAG 2.0, governments adopting WCAG 2.0, ISO/IEC 40500:2012 standard
– Criticism of WAI guidelines: criticism of W3C process, objection to WCAG’s original claim, criticism of WCAG 1.0 and WCAG 2.0, failings of the WAI, slow pace of WCAG 2.0 development
– Essential components of web accessibility: content, web browsers and user agents, assistive technology, users’ knowledge and experiences, developers and authoring tools
– Guidelines for different components: Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG), 28 checkpoints in ATAG, producing accessible output, promoting accessibility-related information, checking and correcting inaccessible content

Web Accessibility Legislation in Different Countries
– Australia: court case under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992, policies and guidelines for accessible public websites
– Brazil: federal government accessibility guidelines, e-MAG based on WCAG 2.0
– Canada: web standards for government websites, Web Experience Toolkit, Accessible Canada Act
– European Union: draft law for accessible public sector websites, Web Accessibility Directive, European Accessibility Act
– India: guidelines for Indian government agencies, National Policy on Universal Electronic Accessibility, Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act
– Ireland: Disability Act 2005, Code of Practice for public bodies, compliance with WCAG
– Israel: Israeli standard 5568 based on WCAG 2.0, differences with Hebrew requirements, compliance enforcement by the Ministry of Justice
– Italy: Legge Stanca (Stanca Act) of 2004, update to WCAG 2.0 in 2013, mandatory compliance for public bodies
– Japan: JIS X 8341-3 based on WCAG 2.0, revision to align with ISO/IEC 40500:2012, compliance required for web accessibility
– Malta: assessments by FITA, Equal Opportunities Act and EU Web Accessibility Directive

BS 8878 and ISO 30071-1
– BS 8878 standard for embedding accessibility and inclusive design, superseded by ISO 30071-1
– Summary of BS 8878 and how it relates to ISO 30071-1
– ISO 30071-1 as an international standard building upon BS 8878

Web Accessibility Regulations
– New accessibility regulations implemented in 2019 for public sector bodies
– Requirements for publishing accessibility statements and making websites accessible
– Information to include in accessibility statements and legal duty for compliance

Web Accessibility in the United States
– Section 508 Amendment and Rehabilitation Act of 1973 for federal agencies’ accessibility
– Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and Title III of the ADA prohibiting discrimination
– Endorsement of WCAG 2.0 AA standard by the U.S. Department of Justice
– Lawsuits related to ADA compliance and importance of web accessibility
– Website accessibility audits to identify problems and ensure compliance.

Web accessibility (Wikipedia)

Web accessibility, or eAccessibility, is the inclusive practice of ensuring there are no barriers that prevent interaction with, or access to, websites on the World Wide Web by people with physical disabilities, situational disabilities, and socio-economic restrictions on bandwidth and speed. When sites are correctly designed, developed and edited, more users have equal access to information and functionality.

For example, when a site is coded with semantically meaningful HTML, with textual equivalents provided for images and with links named meaningfully, this helps blind users using text-to-speech software and/or text-to-Braille hardware. When text and images are large and/or enlargeable, it is easier for users with poor sight to read and understand the content. When links are underlined (or otherwise differentiated) as well as colored, this ensures that color blind users will be able to notice them. When clickable links and areas are large, this helps users who cannot control a mouse with precision. When pages are not coded in a way that hinders navigation by means of the keyboard alone, or a single switch access device alone, this helps users who cannot use a mouse or even a standard keyboard. When videos are closed captioned, chaptered, or a sign language version is available, deaf and hard-of-hearing users can understand the video. When flashing effects are avoided or made optional, users prone to seizures caused by these effects are not put at risk. And when content is written in plain language and illustrated with instructional diagrams and animations, users with dyslexia and learning difficulties are better able to understand the content. When sites are correctly built and maintained, all of these users can be accommodated without decreasing the usability of the site for non-disabled users.

The needs that web accessibility aims to address include:

Accessibility is not confined to the list above, rather it extends to anyone who is experiencing any permanent, temporary or situational disability. Situational disability refers to someone who may be experiencing a boundary based on the current experience. For example, a person may be situationally one-handed if they are carrying a baby. Web accessibility should be mindful of users experiencing a wide variety of barriers. According to a 2018 WebAIM global survey of web accessibility practitioners, close to 93% of survey respondents received no formal schooling on web accessibility.

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