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Principles and History of REST
– REST is a software architectural style that defines constraints for distributed hypermedia systems.
– REST emphasizes uniform interfaces, independent deployment of components, and loose coupling between client and server.
– REST was introduced and defined by Roy Fielding in 2000.
– The Web started to become widely used in 1993-1994, leading to the need for a formal Web architecture.
– Fielding, involved in creating primary Web standards, created the REST architectural style over the next six years.

Architectural Properties and Constraints of REST
– REST is designed for client-server applications and promotes loose coupling.
– REST provides a uniform addressing protocol, text-based transfer of information, and enables robustness, independent deployment, and large-grain data transfer.
– REST affects performance, scalability, simplicity, modifiability, visibility, portability, and reliability.
– REST defines six guiding constraints, including client-server architecture, statelessness, cacheability, uniform interface, layered system, and code on demand.
– These constraints improve various non-functional properties of REST.

Client-Server Architecture and Stateless Protocol
– Client-server architecture separates user interface and data storage concerns, improving portability and simplifying server components.
– Stateless protocol means no session information is retained by the server, improving scalability and allowing independent evolution of components.
– Relevant session data is sent by the client in each packet of information.

Cacheability and Layered System
– Clients and intermediaries can cache responses, improving scalability and performance.
– Cache can be stored in client machines, browser cache storage, or Content Delivery Networks (CDNs).
– Layered system allows clients to be unaware of intermediaries, enabling load balancing, shared caches, and separate security layers.
– Intermediary servers can call multiple other servers to generate a response.

Uniform Interface, Classification Models, and Applications of REST
– Uniform interface simplifies and decouples the architecture, allowing resource identification, manipulation, self-descriptive messages, and dynamic discovery of available resources.
– Classification models like Richardson Maturity Model and HTTP-based API classification assess adherence to REST design principles.
– RESTful APIs adhere to REST architectural constraints, use standards like HTTP, URI, JSON, and XML, and are widely used in web development.
– RESTful services are lightweight, easier to develop and maintain, have better performance, and are suitable for resource-oriented architectures.
– Semantic Web Services combine RESTful principles with semantic technologies, enabling automatic discovery, composition, and enhancing interoperability and integration of distributed systems.
– RESTful services are highly scalable, platform-independent, widely used in mobile app development, and the foundation of popular web APIs. They are suitable for building distributed systems and microservices architectures.

REST (Wikipedia)

REST (Representational state transfer) is a software architectural style that was created to guide the design and development of the architecture for the World Wide Web. REST defines a set of constraints for how the architecture of a distributed, Internet-scale hypermedia system, such as the Web, should behave. The REST architectural style emphasises uniform interfaces, independent deployment of components, the scalability of interactions between them, and creating a layered architecture to promote caching to reduce user-perceived latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.

REST has been employed throughout the software industry to create stateless, reliable Web-based applications. An application that adheres to the REST architectural constraints may be informally described as RESTful, although this term is more commonly associated with the design of HTTP-based APIs and what are widely considered best practices regarding the "verbs" (HTTP methods) a resource responds to while having little to do with REST as originally formulated—and is often even at odds with the concept.

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