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HTML element

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HTML Elements and Structure
HTML elements are components of HTML documents.
HTML elements can add semantics and formatting to parts of a document.
– Elements can have attributes specified.
– Elements can have content, including other elements and text.
HTML documents are composed of a tree of HTML nodes.
– Most HTML elements are written with a start tag and an end tag.
– Some elements, called void elements, do not have an end tag.
– Void elements have predefined behavior and cannot contain content or other elements.
– XHTML requires opening and closing all elements, including void elements.
– An alternative way to specify a void element is to use a self-closing tag.
– The root element of an HTML document is the HTML element.
– The HTML element delimits the beginning and end of an HTML document.
– The head element contains metadata about the document.
– The body element contains the visible content of the document.
– The title element specifies the title of the document.

Elements vs. Tags and SGML vs. XML
– The position of an element is indicated by start and end tags.
– The distinction between elements and tags is emphasized in HTML specifications.
– Certain tags can be omitted, but the element is still present.
HTML parsing depends on the Document Type Definition (DTD).
– The DTD specifies the valid combinations of elements in a document.
– SGML is complex, while XML is a simpler alternative.
XML parsing is simpler than SGML parsing.
HTML on the web is often treated as XML (XHTML) or HTML5.
Parsing document tags into DOM elements is simplified in XML and HTML5.

CSS and Block Elements
CSS defines block elements with the ‘display: block;’ declaration.
HTML has %block; and %inline; groups for block-level and inline elements.
– Block-level elements cannot be placed into an inline context.
– Block and inline elements have different CSS behaviors by default.
CSS behavior can be changed from the default for specific elements.
– Block elements have a rectangular structure and can span the entire width of their parent element.
– Block elements have content, padding, border, and margin, forming the box model.

HTML Element Standards and Status
HTML elements are defined in a series of open standards issued since 1995.
– User agents often developed their own elements during the browser wars of the 1990s.
XML introduced mechanisms to allow anyone to develop their own elements and incorporate them in XHTML documents.
HTML 4.01 was rewritten in an XML-compatible form called XHTML 1.0.
– XHTML 1.0 documents are valid or nearly valid HTML 4.01 documents.
– Several elements have become deprecated or invalid in later standards.
HTML 4.01 / XHTML 1.0 introduced three types of DTD: Transitional, Frameset, and Strict.
– HTML5 provides a listing of obsolete features, both conforming and non-conforming.
– The frame elements are highly problematic for user accessibility.
– XHTML 1.1 does not include frames at all.

Additional HTML Elements
HTML elements can be written in any combination of upper or lower case, but must be in lower case in XHTML.
– There are three kinds of HTML elements: normal elements, raw text elements, and void elements.
– Void elements only have a start tag and may not contain any children.
– Boolean attributes do not require a value to be specified.
HTML allows replacement content for non-visual user agents and can be extended through scripts.
– The document head elements include base, basefont (deprecated), isindex (deprecated), link, and meta.
– The document body elements include block elements, inline elements, basic text elements, lists, and images.
– The basic text elements include p element for paragraphs and h1-h6 elements for section headings.
– The list elements include dl for description lists, ul for unordered lists, and ol for ordered lists.
– The definition list elements include dt and dd.
– Other block elements include address, article, aside, blockquote, and div.
– Additional block elements include figure, figcaption, footer, header, and hr.

HTML element (Wikipedia)

An HTML element is a type of HTML (HyperText Markup Language) document component, one of several types of HTML nodes (there are also text nodes, comment nodes and others).[vague] The first used version of HTML was written by Tim Berners-Lee in 1993 and there have since been many versions of HTML. The current de facto standard is governed by the industry group WHATWG and is known as the HTML Living Standard.

An HTML document is composed of a tree of simple HTML nodes, such as text nodes, and HTML elements, which add semantics and formatting to parts of document (e.g., make text bold, organize it into paragraphs, lists and tables, or embed hyperlinks and images). Each element can have HTML attributes specified. Elements can also have content, including other elements and text.

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